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Table 5 Risk factors for post-operative complications (all grades of complications) in univariable analysis

From: Applicability of the Clavien-Dindo classification to emergency surgical procedures: a retrospective cohort study on 444 consecutive patients

Risk factor Odds ratio 95% CI
Age over 55 years 3.8 2.4 – 6.0
Charlson index > 1 4.7 3.0 – 7.4
Charlson index ≥3 6.6 3.5 – 12.7
Female sex 0.6 0.39 – 0.92
Preoperative organ dysfunction 6.4 3.1 – 13.1
Laparotomy* 6.3 3.9 – 10.0
Surgery because of surgical complication 3.4 1.3 – 8.6
Surgery because of other iatrogenic complication 1.3 0.39 – 4.2**
Time of surgery during regular working hours 0.83 0.53 – 1.3**
Resident as primary surgeon 0.4 0.26 – 0.62
Functional state: partially or totally dependent 2.6 1.1 – 5.9
Living at home before hospitalization 0.53 0.20 – 1.4**
  1. *excluding open appendectomy.
  2. **not significant.
  3. CI – confidence interval.