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Table 1 Fracture healing, callus formation, and complications are shown for mice in the treatment (E.1 – E.8) and control (C.1 – C.8) groups

From: Echinomycin did not affect the safety of fracture healing: an experimental pilot study on a murine femur fracture model

Group Fracture healing Callus formation (0 = mostly absent, 1 = minimum, 2 = medium, 3 = maximum) Complications
E.1 Yes 2 Implant bending
E.2 Yes 2 No
E.3 Yes 1 Implant bending, partial pseudarthrosis
E.4 Yes 2 No
E.5 Yes 1 No
E.6 Yes 1 No
E.7 NA NA Died intraoperatively
E.8 NA NA Died one week postoperatively
C.1 Yes 1 Partial pseudarthrosis
C.2 Yes 3 No
C.3 Yes 2 No
C.4 No 0 Implant bending, open fracture, complete pseudarthrosis
C.5 Yes 2 No
C.6 Yes 1 No
C.7 Yes 1 No
C.8 Yes 2 No