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Table 1 Estimation of Physiologic Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems

From: Assessment of postoperative complications using E-PASS and APACHE II in patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgery

The E-PASS score consists of three parts for estimation of physiologic ability (PRS), surgical stress (SSS), and their comprehensive score(CRS). The formula for each score was as follows:
PRS = − 0.0686 + 0.00345X1 + 0.323X2 + 0.205X3 + 0.153X4 + 0.148X5 + 0.0666X6
XI: age
X2: absence (0) or presence (1) of severe heart disease
X3: absence (0) or presence (I) of severe pulmonary disease
X4: absence (0) or presence (I) of diabetes mellitus
X5: performance status index (0–4)
X6: American Society of Anesthesiologists physiological status classification (1–5)
SSS = − 0.342 + 0.0139X1 + 0.0392X2 + 0.352X3
XI: blood loss/body weight (g/kg)
X2: Operative time (hours)
X3: Extent of the skin incision (0: minor incision, 1: laparotomy or thoracotomy alone, 2: both laparotomy and thoracotomy)
CRS = − 0.328 + 0.396(PRS) + 0.976(SSS)
The APACHE II score is the sum of the acute physiology score (vital signs, oxygenation, laboratory values), the Glasgow coma score, age, and Choronic health points. The worst values during the first 24 h in the ICU should be used. Glasgow coma score(GCS) = eye-openig score + veabal score (intubated or nonintubated) score + motor score. For CCS component of acute physiology score, subtract GCS from 15 to obtain points assigned.
Acute Physiology Score
Score 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
Rectal temperature (°C) ≥41 39.0~ 40.9   38.5~ 38.9 36.0~ 38.4 34.0~ 35.9 32.0~ 33.9 30.0~ 31.9 ≤29.9
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) ≥160 130~ 159 110~ 129   70~ 109   50~ 69   ≤49
Heart rate (beat/min) ≥180 140~ 179 110~ 139     55~ 69 40~ 54 ≤39
Respiratory rate (breaths/min) ≥50 35~ 49   25~ 34 12~ 24 10~ 11 6~ 9   ≤5
Arterial pH ≥7.70 7.60~ 7.69   7.50~ 7.59 7.33~ 7.49   7.25~ 7.32 7.15~ 7.24 < 7.15
Oxygenation: A-aD02 orPa02 (mmHg)          
 a. FiO2 > 0.5 record A-aD02 ≥500 350~ 499 200~ 349   < 200     
 b. Fi02 ≤ 0.5 record Pa02      > 70 61~ 70   55~ 60 < 55
Serum sodium (mmol/L) ≥180 160~ 179 155~ 159 150~ 154 130~ 149   120~ 129 111~ 119 ≤110
Serum potassium(mmol/L) ≥7.0 6.0~ 6.9   5.5~ 5.9 3.5~ 5.4 3.0~ 3.4 2.5~ 2.9   < 2.5
Serum creatinine) mg/dl) ≥3.5 2.0~ 3.4 1.5~ 1.9   0.6~ 1.4   < 0.6   
Hematocrit (%) ≥60   50~ 59.9 46~ 49.9 30~ 45.9   20~ 29.9   < 20
White blood cell count (× 1000) ≥40   20~ 39.9 15~ 19.9 3~ 14.9   1~ 2.9   < 1
Glasgow Coma Score
Eye Opening verbal (Non-intubated) veabal (intubated) Motor Activity
4-Spontaneous 5-Oriented and talks 5-Seemsable to talk 6-Verbal command
3-Verbal stimuli 4-Disoricnted and talks 3-Questionableabilhy to talk 5-Localizedto pain
2-Painful stimuli 3-Inappropriate words 1-Generally unresponsive 4-Withdraws from pain
1-No response 2-Incomprehensihle sounds   3-Decorticate
  1-No response   2-Decerebrate
    1-No response
Points Assigned to Age and Chronic Disease
Age, Years Score   
 < 45 0   
 45~ 54 2   
 55~ 64 3   
 65~ 74 5   
 ≥75 6   
Chronic Health (History of Chronic Conditions) Score
None 0
if the patient is admitted after elective surgery 2
if the patient is admitted after emergency surgery or for a reason other than after elective surgery 5
  1. Abbreviations: A-aD02 alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, Fi02 fraction of inspired oxygen, Pa02 partial pressure of oxygen