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Table 1 A summary of the studies describing the maximum downward deviation of the MMBFN from the lower border of the mandible (MMBFN – Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve)

From: Preserving the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve during submandibular region surgery: a cadaveric safety study

Year of publication Country Sample size (hemifacies) Maximum deviation of the MMBFN (mm) Recommended distance for the incision from the angle of mandible (cm) Special topographical findings
1996 [10] Germany 55 14.00 2 MMBFN had up to 4 branches
2012 [11] Turkey 44 40.08 None Branches of MMBFN - one branch (36.4%), two branches 63.6%. Communications with the buccal branch was present in 4.6%
2007 [12] Turkey 50 10.04 2 MMBFN ran above the inferior border of the mandible in 74%. In 22% of the times the MMBFN divided into two branches at the crossing point of the facial artery
2004 [13] France 54 17.5 None Single branch of MMBFN was found in 43%
1980 [15] England 110 12.0 2 Communications between the MMBFN and the buccal branch were observed in 8%. Communications between the MMBFN and the cervical branch were observed in 12%.
2016 [16] Korea 29 17.0 2 There were no significant differences of the observed distances in fresh and embalmed cadavers
2007 [18] China 24 4.8 None  
1991 [19] China 120 Between 2.1 and 3.0 3 Only 10% of the rami of the MMBFN ran below the lower border of the mandible
2009 [20] Korea 85 19.8 Does not need to be far as 3–4 cm