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Table 1 Overall kappa coefficient by diagnostic method and expert classification (Group 1)

From: Inter-observer reliability of alternative diagnostic methods for proximal humerus fractures: a comparison between attending surgeons and orthopedic residents in training

  X-ray Tomography 3D models Augmented Reality/Holography
Kappa p Kappa p Kappa p Kappa p
AO 0.472 <0.001 0.352 <0.001 0.624 <0.001 0.421 <0.001
 Aa 0.561 < 0.001 0.397 < 0.001 0.711 < 0.001 0.520 < 0.001
 Ba 0.099 < 0.001 0.075 < 0.001 0.251 < 0.001 0.061 0.006
 Ca 0.628 < 0.001 0.520 < 0.001 0.763 < 0.001 0.555 < 0.001
Neer 0.371 <0.001 0.241 <0.001 0.497 <0.001 0.387 <0.001
 1 part 0.019 0.219 0.020 0.205 0.058 0.008 0.139 < 0.001
 2 parts 0.542 < 0.001 0.426 < 0.001 0.719 < 0.001 0.536 < 0.001
 3 parts 0.101 < 0.001 0.042 0.040 0.225 < 0.001 0.164 < 0.001
 4 parts 0.435 < 0.001 0.296 < 0.001 0.554 < 0.001 0.446 < 0.001
  1. AO Arbeit Gemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification, Neer Charles Neer classification
  2. a Groups A, B and C adopted by the AO / ASIF, with correspondence to 2, 3 and 4 parts respectively (Kellam and Meinberg, 2018) [8]
  3. N = 20 observers