Skip to main content

Table 2 Clinicopathological factors of patient who underwent total mastectomy with sentinel node retrieval or total mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection (Ax I, II, and III)

From: Impact of the surgical modality for axillary lymph node dissection on postoperative drainage and seroma formation after total mastectomy

Factor Group Total mastectomy
Sentinel node retrieval
Total mastectomy
Axillary lymph node dissection
p-value
Number of patients   33 169  
  mean (sd) mean (sd)  
Age mean (sd) years   69.6 (11.8) 61.9 (11.4) 0.05
Body mass index   22.3 (3.1) 23.2 (4.1)  
Side of the tumor (%) Left 13 (39.4) 78 (46.2) < 0.001
Right 20 (60.6) 91 (53.8) 0.019
Preoperative chemotherapy (%) No 33 (100.0) 161 (95.3) 0.013
Yes 0 (0.0) 8 (4.7) 0.057
Number of lymph nodes retrieved   2.91 (1.59) 14.28 (7.13) 0.302
Number of metastatic lymph nodes   0.27 (0.63) 1.86 (3.86) < 0.001
Weight of specimen   344.8 (159.9) 449.3 (228.6) < 0.001
Size of tumor   24.2 (17.4) 30.4 (16.8) 0.057
Stage (TMN) 1 16 (48.5) 60 (35.5) 0.534
2 16 (48.5) 94 (55.6)  
3 1 (3.0) 13 (7.7)  
4 0 (0.0) 2 (1.2)  
Drainage No 9 (27.3) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Yes 24 (72.7) 169 (100.0)  
Volume of drainage during 1 week   312.1 (153.4) 588.3 (279.4) < 0.001
Total fluid discharge volume   333.1 (262.1) 1456.3 (817.4) < 0.001
Drainage volume the day before drain removal   15.50 (9.10) 19.05 (9.61) 0.05
Post-operative day of drain removal   8.4 (4.23) 14.2 (6.24) < 0.001
Seroma formation No 27 (81.8) 136 (80.5) 1
Yes 6 (18.2) 33 (19.5)  
Number 0 26 (78.8) 136 (80.5)  
1 0 (0.0) 19 (11.2)  
2 3 (9.1) 6 (3.6)  
3 3 (9.1) 3 (1.8)  
4 1 (3.0) 4 (2.4)  
6 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6)  
Surgical modality
 Group D   7 (21.2) 46 (27.2) 0.21
 Group A   11 (33.3) 74 (43.8)  
 Group B   15 (45.5) 49 (29.0)  
Prolonged fluid discharge No 29 (87.9) 117 (69.2) 0.033
Yes 4 (12.1) 52 (30.8)  
Hospital stay Days 14.0 (5.1) 22.3 (7.2) < 0.001
Complications
 seroma infection extirpation of seroma by surgery (re-drainage)   1 0  
 re-drainage   0 2  
 infection   0 2  
 bleeding   0 1  
 flap necrosis   0 0  
Lymph edema of upper limbs (%) No 33 (100.0) 149 (88.2) 0.05
Yes 0 (0.0) 20 (11.8)  
  1. Prolonged fluid discharge: prolonged drainage or seroma formation after the 20th operative day or later
  2. Group D: skin flap formation by electrocautery and axillary lymph node dissection by picking up using forceps and ligation (Surgeon D)
  3. Group A: skin flap formation by electrocautery and axillary lymph node dissection by electrocautery with ligation of the arteries and veins (Surgeons A, C and E)
  4. Group B: skin flap formation by electrocautery and axillary lymph node dissection by ultrasonic dissector without ligating the vessels (Surgeon B)