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Table 3 Clinicopathological factors related to prolonged fluid discharge after total mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection

From: Impact of the surgical modality for axillary lymph node dissection on postoperative drainage and seroma formation after total mastectomy

Factor Group No Yes p-value
Number of patients   117 52  
  mean (sd) mean (sd)  
Age   61.6 (11.8) 62.5 (10.9) 0.636
Body mass index   22.6 (3.82) 24.6 (4.6) 0.005
Preoperative chemotherapy No 110 (94.0) 51 (98.1) 0.437
Yes 7 (6.0) 1 (1.9)  
Site of breast tumor (%) Right 63 (53.8) 28 (53.8) 1
Left 54 (46.2) 24 (46.2)  
Number of tumors Multiple 8 (6.8) 6 (11.5) 0.366
Single 109 (93.2) 46 (88.5)  
Weight of specimen   410.9 (196.9) 535.7 (270.0) 0.001
Size   30.9 (17.3) 30.6 (16.1) 0.892
Level of axillary lymph node dissection (%) Ax I 40 (34.2) 10 (19.2) 0.066
Ax II 56 (47.9) 26 (50.0)  
Ax III 21 (17.9) 16 (30.8)  
Number of lymph nodes retrieved   14.8 (7.4) 14.5 (6.4) 0.77
Number of metastatic lymph nodes   1.6 (3.5) 2.4 (4.5) 0.226
Volume of drainage during 1 week   506.0 (244.9) 773.7 (265.0) < 0.001
Total fluid discharge volume   1161.7 (615.1) 2048.0 (794.8) < 0.001
Drainage volume the day before drain removal   17.2 (8.3) 23.2 (11.1) < 0.001
seroma formation (%) No 117 (100.0) 19 (36.5) < 0.001
Yes 0 (0.0) 33 (63.5)  
Re-drainage (%) No 117 (100.0) 50 (96.2) 0.093
Yes 0 (0.0) 2 (3.8)  
Lymph edema of the upper limbs (%) No 102 (87.2) 47 (90.4) 0.617
Yes 15 (12.8) 5 (9.6)  
Surgical modality Group D 41 (35.0) 5 (9.6) 0.001
Group A 48 (41.0) 26 (50.0)  
Group B 28 (23.9) 21 (40.4)  
  1. No: no prolonged drainage or seroma formation after the 20th operative day or later
  2. Yes: prolonged drainage or seroma formation after the 20th operative day or later
  3. Group D: skin flap formation by electrocautery and axillary lymph node dissection by picking up using forceps and ligation (Surgeon D)
  4. Group A: skin flap formation by electrocautery and axillary lymph node dissection by electrocautery with ligation of the arteries and veins (Surgeons A, C and E)
  5. Group B: skin flap formation by electrocautery and axillary lymph node dissection by ultrasonic dissector without ligating the vessels (Surgeon B)