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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients undergone a surgical procedure in Bahir Dar city public and private hospitals, Ethiopia, June 2018 (n = 642)

From: The prevalence and root causes of surgical site infections in public versus private hospitals in Ethiopia: a retrospective observational cohort study

Variable Public Hospital (N = 321) Private Hospital (N = 321) Total (N = 642)
Type of surgery
 Elective 192 (59.8%) 207 (64.5%) 399 (62.15%)
 Emergency 129 (40.2%) 114 (35.5%) 243 (37.85%)
Given antibiotic prophylaxis
 Yes 305 (95.0%) 306 (95.3%) 611 (95.2%)
 No 16 (5.0%) 15 (4.7%) 31 (4.8%)
Timing of prophylactic drug administration
 Before surgery 305 (95.0%) 275 (85.7%) 580 (90.39%)
 After surgery 16 (5.0%) 46 (14.3%) 62 (9.65%)
ASA score
 Class1 162 (50.5%) 301 (93.8%) 463 (72.1%)
 Class2 132 (41.1%) 17 (5.3%) 149 (23.2%)
 Class3 22 (6.9%) 3 (0.9%) 25 (3.9%)
 Class4 5 (1.6%) 0 5 (0.8%)
Substance use
 No 305 (95.0%) 296 (92.2%) 601 (93.6%)
 Yes 16 (5.0%) 25 (7.8%) 41 (6.4%)
Types of substance use
 Alcoholic 4 (1.2%) 15 (4.7% 19 (2.95%)
 Smoker 12 (3.8%) 10 (3.1) 223.4%)
Had co-morbidities
 No 270 (84.1%) 286 (89.1%) 556 (86.6%)
 Yes 51 (15.9%) 35 (10.9%) 86 (13.39%)
Type of co-morbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 10 (3.1%) 14 (4.4%) 24 (3.7%)
 HIV 8 (2.5%0 6 (1.9%) 14 (2.1%)
 Hypertension 1 (4.7%) 11 (3.4%) 12 (1.9%)
 Malignancy 13 (4.0%) 9 (2.850 22 (3.4%)
Antiseptic used for skin preparation
 Iodine 31 (9.7%) 20 (6.2%) 51 (7.9%)
 Isopropyl alcohol l plus iodine 237 (73.8%) 266 (82.9% 503 (78.34%)
 Isopropyl alcohol 53 (16.5%) 35 (10.9%) 88 (13.7%)
provider doing the procedure
 Surgeon 93 316 409 (63.7%)
 Resident and GP 228 5 233 (36.3%)
Type of surgery
 Neuro surgery 33 (10.3%) 32 (10.0%) 65 (10.12%)
 Abdominal Surgery 114 (35.5%) 179 (55.8%) 293 (45.6%)
 Chest surgery 23 (7.2%) 6 (1.9%) 29 (4.5%)
 Genitourinary Surgery 23 (7.2%) 31 (9.75) 54 (8.4%)
 Cesarean section Surgery 128 (39.9%) 73 (22.7%) 201 (31.3%)
Type of dressing
 Gauze 179 (55.8%) 33 (10.3%) 212 (33.02%)
 Gauze and saline 79 (24.6%) 264 (82.2%) 343 (53.4%)
 Gauze and Iodine 63 (19.6%) 24 (7.5%) 87 (13.6%)
Duration of operation
 within 30 min 75 (23.36%) 140 (43.6%) 215 (33.48%)
 31-60 min 189 (58.87%) 133 (41.43%) 322 (50.15%)
 ≥ 60 min 57 (17.76%) 48 (14.95%) 105 (16.36)
Wound type
 Clean 245 (76.32%) 242 (75.38%) 487 (82.2%)
 Contaminated and dirty 76 (23.675) 79 (24.61%) 155 (3.4%)
Length of stay at hospital
 < 6 days 144 (44.86%) 190 (59.19% 334 (52.02)
 ≥ 6 days 177 (55.14) 131 (40.80%) 308 (47.98)
Got blood transfusion
 Yes 26 (8.10%) 80 (24.92%) 106 (16.51%)
 No 295 (91.90%) 241 (75.08%) 536 (83.49%)