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Table 1 Clinical criteria for high-risk surgical patients (Reproduced with permission from Boyd O, Jackson N. Clinical review: How is risk defined in high-risk surgical patient management? Critical Care 2005, 9:390–396, Copyright Springer Nature)

From: Current concepts of perioperative monitoring in high-risk surgical patients: a review

Previous severe cardiorespiratory illness — acute myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or stroke
Late-stage vascular disease involving aorta
Age > 70 years with limited physiological reserve in one or more vital organs
Extensive surgery for carcinoma (e.g. oesophagectomy, gastrectomy cystectomy)
Acute abdominal catastrophe with haemodynamic instability (e.g. peritonitis, perforated viscus, pancreatitis)
Acute massive blood loss > 8 units
Septicaemia
Positive blood culture or septic focus
Respiratory failure: PaO2 < 8.0 kPa on FIO2 > 0.4 or mechanical ventilation > 48 h
Acute renal failure: urea > 20 mmol/l or creatinine > 260 mmol/l