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Table 3 Potential perioperative risk factors and PPCS, Mechanical Ventilation and 30-day mortality

From: Root causes and outcomes of postoperative pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: a retrospective observational cohort study

VariablenPPC
(Postoperative Pulmonary Complications)
Mechanical Ventilation30-Day Mortality
≤ 48 h> 48 h
OR (95% C.I.)aOR (95% C.I.)aOR (95% C.I.)aOR (95% C.I.)a
Sex
 M451111
 F150.48 (0.15–1.58)3.50 (0.87–14.11)0.59 (0.15–2.35)2.31 (0.62–8.64)
NMBD
 No431111
 Yes1718.40 (2.24–151.35)0.67 (0.21–2.08)**2.81 (0.78–10.12)
Age601.05 (0.98–1.13)0.95 (0.89–1.03)1.01 (0.93–1.10)1.05 (0.97–1.15)
ASA
 1181111
 2170.37 (0.07–1.80)0.56 (0.14–2.21)0.94 (0.05–16.35)1.09 (0.27–4.41)
 3130.32 (0.06–1.70)0.31 (0.07–1.38)0.13 (0.01–1.37)0.17 (0.02–1.60)
 4120.04 (0.01–0.28)2.50 (0.41–15.23)0.06 (0.01–0.59)**
ARISCAT
 Low risk < 26141111
 Intermediate Risk 26–44161.65 (0.37–7.37)0.21 (0.04–1.29)0.72 (0.10–5.09)1.50 (0.32–6.99)
 High risk > 45300.98 (0.27–3.53)0.17 (0.03–0.88)0.55 (0.10–3.06)0.28 (0.05–1.47)
Respiratory Infection
 No501111
 Yes101.00 (0.25–4.00)1.69 (0.39–7.31)2.54 (0.29–22.27)1.71 (0.38–7.84)
Anemia
 No301111
 Yes300.76 (0.27–2.13)2.33 (0.81–6.73)1.00 (0.28–3.54)1.22 (0.36–4.17)
Incision Type
 Bilateral subcostal211111
 Median390.22 (0.06–0.79)4.14 (1.34–12.72)0.13 (0.02–1.07)0.55 (0.16–1.91)
LPT vs. LPC
 LPC (Laparoscopy)191111
 LPT (Laparotomy)411.14 (0.38–3.43)1.14 (0.38–3.43)1.73 (0.47–6.40)0.45 (0.13–1.58)
Surgery Duration     
  < 180 min421111
  > 180 min183.18 (0.90–11.28)0.29 (0.09–0.90)2.50 (0.49–12.79)2.50 (0.70–8.92)
Smokers
 No351111
 Yes251.33 (0.46–3.83)0.75 (0.26–2.14)1.00 (0.28–3.61)0.55 (0.15–2.04)
BMI
  < 18121111
 18–25200.78 (0.15–3.93)1.40 (0.33–5.93)**0.75 (0.14–4.13)
 25–30160.56 (0.11–2.90)2.33 (0.51–10.78)**1.36 (0.25–7.32)
30–35120.11 (0.02–0.71)15.40 (1.47–160.97)**0.27 (0.02–3.09)
COPD/Asthma History
 No421111
 Yes180.56 (0.18–1.70)2.15 (0.65–7.11)0.21 (0.06–0.80)1.63 (0.45–5.92)
POSA
  ≤ 35 g/L85.55 (0.64–48.41)0.63 (0.14–2.79)1.88 (0.21–16.92)19.29 (3.23–115.22)
  > 35 g/l521111
Lactate
  < 4 mmol/l141111
  > 4 mmol/l460.52 (0.14–1.90)1.17 (0.35–3.92)**0.38 (0.10–1.44)
PREOP Abnormal Arterial blood gases
 No201111
 Yes403.50 (1.14–10.74)0.16 (0.04–0.63)1.57 (0.43–5.77)0.49 (0.14–1.74)
Pa02 ≤ 50 ≥ 60 Moderate - Severe ARF
 No251111
 Yes352.36 (0.82–6.83)0.41 (0.14–1.23)1.53 (0.43–5.44)1.82 (0.49–6.74)
Pa02/FiO2
  < 100210.83 (0.28–2.45)1.13 (0.38–3.35)1.80 (0.43–7.53)**
 101–300391111
PREOP Abnormal Chest radiography
 No361111
 Yes243.00 (0.97–9.30)0.37 (0.13–1.09)4.23 (0.84–21.40)2.06 (0.59–7.13)
  1. ASA PS American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, BMI body mass index, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, FiO2 Inspiratory oxygen fraction, LPC Laparoscopy, LPT Laparotomy, NMBD Neuromuscular blocking drugs, PaO2 arterial oxygen pressure, PREOP preoperative period, POSA preoperative serum albumin. a Unadjusted (Univariable Model);** No cases in at least one of the groups; Bold - significant values.