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Table 1 Examples of surgical case types stratified by indication and urgency

From: How to risk-stratify elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic?

IndicationUrgencyCase examples
Emergent<  1 h• Life-threating emergencies
• Acute exsanguination / hemorrhagic shock
• Trauma level 1 activations
• Acute vascular injury or occlusion
• Aortic dissection
• Emergency C-section
• Acute compartment syndrome
• Necrotizing fasciitis
• Peritonitis
• Bowel obstruction / perforation
Urgent<  24 h• Appendicitis / cholecystitis
• Septic arthritis
• Open fractures
• Bleeding pelvic fractures
• Femur shaft fractures & hip fractures
• Acute nerve injuries / spinal cord injuries
• Surgical infections
Urgent-elective<  2 weeks• Cardiothoracic / cardiovascular procedures
• Cerebral aneurysm repair
• Vascular access devices
• Skin grafts / flaps / wound closures
• Scheduled C-section
• Closed fractures
• Spinal fractures & acetabular fractures
Elective (essential)1–3 months• Cancer surgery & biopsies
• Subacute cardiac valve procedures
• Hernia repair
• Hysterectomy
• Reconstructive surgery
Elective (discretionary)>  3 months• Cosmetic surgery
• Bariatric surgery
• Joint replacement
• Sports surgery
• Vasectomy / tubal ligation
• Infertility procedures