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Fig. 3 | Patient Safety in Surgery

Fig. 3

From: Successful COVID-19 rescue therapy by extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory failure: a case report

Fig. 3

Algorithm for consideration of ECMO in patients with acute respiratory failure. Legend and abbreviations: PEEP = positive end-expiratory pressure. PaO2:FiO2 = ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to the fractional concentration of oxygen in inspired air. EMCO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PaCO2 = partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood. *With respiratory rate increased to 35 breaths per minute and mechanical ventilation settings adjusted to keep a plateau airway pressure of < 32 cm of water. Consider neuromuscular blockade. There are no absolute contraindications that are agreed upon except end-stage respiratory failure when lung transplantation will not be considered; exclusion criteria used in the EOLIA trial1 can be taken as a conservative approach to contraindications to EMCO. §Eg, neuromuscular blockade, high PEEP strategy, inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, recruitment manoeuvres, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. ¶Recommend early ECMO as per EOLIA trial criteria; salvage ECMO, which involves deferral of ECMO initiation until further decompensation (as in the crossovers to ECMO in the EOLIA control group), is not supported by the evidence but might be preferable to not initiating ECMO at all in such patients. This algorithm is endorsed by the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) [18]. Reprinted with permissions from [17]: Abrams D, Ferguson ND, Brochard L, Fan E, Mercat A, Combes A, Pellegrino V, Schmidt M, Slutsky AS, Brodie D. ECMO for ARDS: from salvage to standard of care? Lancet Respir. Med. 2019, 7:108–10. (Reprint permission to Philip F. Stahel, MD: license # 4804540769693, April 8, 2020)

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