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Fig. 1 | Patient Safety in Surgery

Fig. 1

From: The novel immunomodulatory biologic LMWF5A for pharmacological attenuation of the “cytokine storm” in COVID-19 patients: a hypothesis

Fig. 1

TNFα release from LPS-stimulated PBMC in the presence of LMWF5A. PBMC were incubated with LMWF5A, 0.1 μM dexamethasone, or saline for 1 h then stimulated with LPS for 18 h. TNFα release was determined by ELISA and presented as means ± SEM from 13 individual donors. % inhibition in LPS-induced TNFα release was also calculated for the LMWF5A treatment groups versus saline control release ( = p ≤ 0.05 vs. saline control). Adapted and modified from Thomas et al. 2016 [19]

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