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Table 2 Patient demographics and surgical characteristics in total population and broken down by pain failure (pain score > 5) in first 48 h post-op

From: Risk factors for liposomal bupivacaine resistance after total hip or knee arthroplasties: a retrospective observational cohort in 237 patients

 Total (n = 237)Pain Failure in 0–6 hPain Failure in 6-12 hPain Failure in 12-24 hPain Failure in 24-48 h
NoYesp-valueNoYesp-valueNoYesp-valueNoYesp-value
Gender   0.37  0.30  0.86  0.71
 Male71 (31.4)47 (33.6)24 (27.9) 33 (29.0)23 (36.5) 19 (33.9)46 (32.6) 12 (28.6)52 (31.5) 
 Female155 (68.6)93 (66.4)62 (72.1) 81 (71.1)40 (63.5) 37 (66.1)95 (67.4) 30 (71.4)113 (68.5) 
Age62.8 ± 10.864.6 ± 10.060.0 ± 11.50.00263.8 ± 10.458.8 ± 11.80.00464.7 ± 10.061.7 ± 10.90.0866.5 ± 10.361.8 ± 10.70.01
BMI32.4 ± 11.831.7 ± 6.233.6 ± 17.40.2431.4 ± 6.634.2 ± 20.10.1730.2 ± 6.033.7 ± 13.90.0730.5 ± 6.532.8 ± 18.10.30
Side   0.45  0.34  0.25  0.70
 Right133 (58.3)85 (60.3)48 (55.2) 70 (61.4)34 (54.0) 36 (64.3)79 (55.2) 23 (54.8)97 (58.1) 
 Left95 (41.7)56 (39.7)39 (44.8) 44 (38.6)29 (46.0) 20 (35.7)64 (44.8) 19 (45.2)70 (41.9) 
Surgery   0.03  0.16*  0.14*  0.36*
 Primary Total Knee122 (54.7)72 (52.6)50 (58.1) 64 (57.7)37 (58.7) 26 (47.3)85 (60.7) 22 (56.4)92 (55.4) 
 Revision Total Knee18 (8.1)10 (7.3)8 (9.3) 7 (6.3)3 (4.8) 3 (5.5)12 (8.6) 3 (7.7)13 (7.8) 
 Primary Total Hip66 (29.6)48 (35.0)18 (20.9) 37 (33.3)17 (27.0) 22 (40.0)31 (22.1) 14 (35.9)46 (27.7) 
 Revision Total Hip15 (6.7)5 (3.7)10 (11.6) 2 (1.8)6 (9.5) 4 (7.3)10 (7.1) 013 (7.8) 
 Bilateral Knee2 (0.9)2 (1.5)0 1 (0.9)0 02 (1.4) 02 (1.2) 
PCA   0.36  0.86  0.03  0.15
 Yes49 (21.3)109 (76.8)72 (81.8) 90 (78.3)50 (79.4) 38 (69.1)120 (83.3) 31 (72.1)137 (82.0) 
 No181 (78.7)33 (23.2)16 (18.2) 25 (21.7)13 (20.6) 17 (30.9)24 (16.7) 12 (27.9)30 (18.0) 
Type of Block   0.42  0.76  0.37  0.68
 None193 (83.9)117 (82.4)76 (86.4) 96 (83.5)55 (87.3) 42 (76.4)122 (84.7) 37 (86.1)137 (82.0) 
 Spinal/Epidural26 (11.3)19 (13.4)7 (8.0) 13 (11.3)5 (7.9) 10 (18.2)16 (11.1) 5 (11.6)21 (12.6) 
 Femoral/Intraarticular11 (4.8)6 (4.2)5 (5.7) 6 (5.2)3 (4.8) 3 (5.5)6 (4.2) 1 (2.3)9 (5.4) 
Smoker   0.04  0.20  0.29  0.05
 Yes47 (21.0)23 (16.6)24 (28.2) 20 (17.7)16 (25.8) 9 (16.1)32 (22.9) 4 (9.5)38 (23.3) 
 No177 (79.0)116 (83.5)61 (71.8) 93 (82.3)46 (74.2) 47 (83.9)108 (77.1) 38 (90.5)125 (76.7) 
Alcohol   0.49  0.23  0.54  0.11
 Yes42 (18.7)24 (17.3)18 (20.9) 17 (15.0)14 (22.2) 9 (16.1)28 (19.9) 4 (9.5)33 (20.1) 
 No183 (81.3)115 (82.7)68 (79.1) 96 (85.0)49 (77.8) 47 (83.9)113 (80.1) 38 (90.5)131 (79.9) 
Hx Pain Management   0.09  0.0003  0.25  0.01
 Yes94 (41.8)52 (37.4)42 (48.8) 38 (33.3)38 (61.3) 20 (36.4)64 (45.4) 11 (26.2)79 (48.2) 
 No131 (58.2)87 (62.6)44 (51.2) 76 (66.7)24 (38.7) 35 (63.6)77 (54.6) 31 (73.8)85 (51.8) 
Home Pain Meds   0.11  0.001*  0.20*  0.004*
 None130 (57.5)86 (61.4)44 (51.2) 76 (66.7)24 (38.1) 34 (60.7)77 (54.6) 31 (73.8)84 (50.9) 
 Opioids70 (31.0)36 (25.7)34 (39.5) 27 (23.7)32 (50.8) 13 (23.2)50 (35.5) 5 (11.9)63 (38.2) 
 Neurontin/Lyrica9 (4.0)5 (3.6)4 (4.7) 5 (4.4)2 (3.2) 2 (3.6)6 (4.3) 1 (2.4)7 (4.2) 
 Other17 (7.5)13 (9.3)4 (4.7) 6 (5.3)5 (7.9) 7 (12.5)8 (5.7) 5 (11.9)11 (6.7) 
Steroids   0.63  0.87  0.54  0.77*
 Yes21 (9.3)12 (8.6)9 (10.5) 10 (8.8)6 (9.5) 4 (7.1)14 (9.9) 3 (7.1)17 (10.3) 
 No205 (90.7)128 (91.4)77 (89.5) 104 (91.2)57 (90.5) 52 (92.9)127 (90.1) 39 (92.9)148 (89.7) 
Antidepressants   0.14  0.18  0.53  0.79*
 Yes23 (10.1)11 (7.9)12 (14.0) 9 (7.9)9 (14.3) 5 (8.9)17 (12.1) 5 (11.9)18 (10.9) 
 No203 (89.8)129 (92.1)74 (86.1) 105 (92.1)54 (85.7) 51 (91.1)124 (87.9) 37 (88.1)147 (89.1) 
Diabetes   0.45  0.12  0.94  0.93
 Yes67 (29.7)44 (31.4)23 (26.7) 40 (35.1)15 (23.8) 16 (28.6)41 (29.1) 13 (31.0)50 (30.3) 
 No159 (70.4)96 (68.6)63 (73.3) 74 (64.9)48 (76.2) 40 (71.4)100 (70.9) 29 (69.1)115 (69.7) 
  1. *Fisher-Exact tests were used in place of chi-square tests to obtain p-values were > 25% of cells have expected counts < 5
  2. Bold indicates clinical significance < 0.05