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Table 1 Studies of AO-43C Tibial Pilon Fractures Treated with Primary Arthrodesis or Staged Treatment Using the AO/Orthopedic Trauma Association Classification System

From: Fusion versus fixation in complex comminuted C3-type tibial pilon fractures: a systematic review

Study Treatment Mean Time to Definitive Treatment (d) Fxs(n) AO/OTA 43 Fx Type (N) Open Fxs (n) Complications Amp (n) Mean ROM (°) Secondary Fusion (n) Mean Follow-up (mo)
C1/C2 C3 MU/NU (n) W/I/P (n) PTOA(n)a
Beaman and Gellman [20] Temporary ex fix followed by primary arthrodesis 15 12 0 12 5 0 1 NR 0 NR 0 24
Borens et al. [3] 2-Staged, minimally invasive anterior approach 11.3 17 9 8 3 0 6 8 0 30 1 17
Bozic et al. [8] Temporary ex fix followed by primary arthrodesis 140 15 0 15 8 0 1 NR 0 NR 0 39
Grose et al. [28] 2-Staged, lateral approach NR 43 8 27 18 4 9 NR 0 43 0 13.7
McCann et al. [29] Primary ORIF or 2-staged 13.6 48 29 6 3 1 9 5 NR NR NR 9.1
Morgan et al. [21] Temporary ex fix followed by late primary arthrodesis 280 6 0 5 4 0 0 NR 0 NR 0 35
Sirkin et al.(15)b 2-Staged, ex fix followed by ORIF (closed) 12.7 22 14 42 22 NR 6 NR 0 NR 0 NR
2-Staged, ex fix followed by ORIF (open) 14 34 34 NR 4 NR 1 NR 1 NR
Zelle et al. [22] Temporary ex fix followed by primary arthrodesis 22 20 4 16 5 1 1 NR 0 NR 0 86
Guan et al. [25] 2-staged 19 13 0 13 3 2 0 NR NR 28 NR 32
Chen et al. [24] 3-staged (ex fix, ORIF posterior column, ORIF anterior/medial columns) 12 25 0 25 3 0 2 2 NR NR 0 24.4
Wang et al. [26] Temporary ex fix followed by ORIF (vacuum sealing drainage) 14.3 16 6 10 NR 0 0 0 0 R NR 23.3
Leonetti et al. [27] Ex fix vs. ORIF NR 71 9 14 20 13 9 14 NR NR NR 36
Beckwitt et al. [23] Primary ORIF and primary arthrodesis NR 35 0 35 9 6 1 11 NR NR 1 73.7
Total or weighted mean   16.1 377 79 228 103 27 49 40 3 37.3 3 33.2
  1. Amp, amputation; Fxs, fractures; ex fix, external fixation; MU/NU, malunion, nonunion; NR, not reported; ORIF, open reduction and internal fixation; ROM, range of motion; W/I/P, wound problem, infection, or pain from implant
  2. a Symptomatic or radiographic
  3. b Two fracture groups reported separately—closed and open—with 56 fractures in 53 patients