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Table 5 Surgical AEs by injury (n = 596) and proportions with preventability or permanent disability (including death)

From: The incidence, root-causes, and outcomes of adverse events in surgical units: implication for potential prevention strategies

Injury No. (Column %*) Preventable (Row %*) Permanent disability (including death) (Row %*)
Inflammation/infection 136 (39.3) 25.7 11.1
Bleeding/hematoma 72 (23.1) 25.8 6.3
Injury by mechanical/physical or chemical cause (e.g. puncture, perforation, joint or implant luxation) 46 (22.1) 68.3 6.1
Other functional disorder 49 (16.5) 35.6 15.8
Accumulation/leakage of body fluids 46 (12.2) 45.5 14.7
Abnormal wound healing (e.g. wound dehiscence/delayed fracture healing/pseudarthrosis/stenosis) 39 (12.0) 31.3 6.3
Symptoms without diagnosis (e.g. fever, pain) 7 (4.1) 16.7 0
Fistula forming 18 (4.0) 54.5 9.1
Shock 47 (3.9) 54.5 50.0
Necrosis/infarction 44 (3.8) 40.0 40.0
Thrombosis/Embolism 25 (3.5) 30.0 40.0
Ischemia/heart failure 40 (2.9) 50.0 42.9
Pressure ulcers 8 (2.9) 71.4 0
Rejection/allergy/other immunological reaction 2 (1.4) 0.0 0
Other/non-specified category 9 (3.7) 40.0 10.0
  1. * Corrected for the over-representation of deceased patients and hospital type