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  1. In biomedical research, level of evidence (LOE) indicates the quality of a study. Recent studies evaluating orthopaedic trauma literature between 1998 and 2013 have indicated that LOE in this field has improve...

    Authors: Kitchai Luksameearunothai, Yash Chaudhry, Sorawut Thamyongkit, Xiaofeng Jia and Erik A. Hasenboehler

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic places healthcare workers at risk of exposure to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emergency department (ED) staff are particula...

    Authors: Eric Hill, Christopher Crockett, Ryan W. Circh, Frank Lansville and Philip F. Stahel

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:22

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  3. A common complication of viral pulmonary infections, such as in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, is a phenomenon described as a “cytokine storm”. While poorly defined, this hyperinflammatory response results in ...

    Authors: Gregory Thomas, Elizabeth Frederick, Melissa Hausburg, Laura Goldberg, Marshall Hoke, Michael Roshon, Charles Mains and David Bar-Or

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:21

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  4. The value of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients suffering from novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a rescue therapy for respiratory failure remains controversial and associated wi...

    Authors: Michael S. Firstenberg, Philip F. Stahel, Jennifer Hanna, Chakradhar Kotaru, Joseph Crossno Jr and Joseph Forrester

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:20

    Content type: Case report

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  5. Pre-operative anemia is a common, but treatable, condition encountered by surgical patients. It has been associated with increased perioperative complications, length of stay, and blood transfusions. The aim o...

    Authors: Terry M. Zwiep, Richard W. D. Gilbert, Husein Moloo, Donna Touchie, Guillaume Martel, Tom Wallace and Kimberly A. Bertens

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:18

    Content type: Research

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  6. This study aims to assess orthopaedic surgeon knowledge in Brazil about ionizing radiation and its health implications on surgical teams and patients.

    Authors: Robinson Esteves Pires, Igor Guedes Nogueira Reis, Ângelo Ribeiro Vaz de Faria, Vincenzo Giordano, Pedro José Labronici and William Dias Belangero

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:16

    Content type: Research

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  7. The concerns of the highly contagious and morbid nature of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-2019) have prompted healthcare workers to implement strict droplet and contact isolation precautions. Unfortunately, s...

    Authors: Michael S. Firstenberg, Matthew Libby, Michael Ochs, Jennifer Hanna, Julie E. Mangino and Joseph Forrester

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:15

    Content type: Case report

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  8. Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (< 36 °C) occurs frequently during elective cesarean delivery and most institutions do employ perioperative active warming. The purpose of this retrospective observational...

    Authors: Amie L. Hoefnagel, Kristen L. Vanderhoef, Anwar Anjum, Venkata Damalanka, Saurin J. Shah, Carol A. Diachun and Paul D. Mongan

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:14

    Content type: Research

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  9. Incident reporting is an effective strategy used to enhance patient safety and quality improvement in healthcare. An incident is an event that could eventually result in harm to a patient. The aim of this stud...

    Authors: Tatsuya Fukami, Masakazu Uemura and Yoshimasa Nagao

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:13

    Content type: Research

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  10. There is a lack of data on the use and effectiveness of pre-hospital pelvic circumferential compression devices (PCCD) as a temporary intervention for pelvic fracture management; they are thought to decrease p...

    Authors: Stephanie Jarvis, Kristin Salottolo, Richard Meinig, Chad Corrigan, Nimesh Patel, Matthew Carrick, Mark Lieser, Cassandra Reynolds and David Bar-Or

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:12

    Content type: Research

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  11. Caesarean section rates have increased worldwide in recent decades. Caesarean section is an essential maternal healthcare service. However, it has both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Therefore this sy...

    Authors: Getnet Gedefaw, Asmamaw Demis, Birhan Alemnew, Adam Wondmieneh, Addisu Getie and Fikadu Waltengus

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:11

    Content type: Research

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  12. Intraoperatively acquired pressure ulcers are serious postsurgical complications requiring additional treatment, reoperation, and extended hospitalization. No study has investigated the frequency of the ulcers...

    Authors: Takuro Ueno, Tamon Kabata, Yoshitomo Kajino, Daisuke Inoue, Takaaki Ohmori, Junya Yoshitani, Ken Ueoka, Yuki Yamamuro and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:10

    Content type: Research

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  13. Spinal anesthesia-induced maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication associated with maternal morbidity and mortality during Cesarean section. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence and...

    Authors: Tikuneh Yetneberk Alemayehu, Yophetah Woldegerima Berhe, Habtamu Getnet and Mamaru Molallign

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:9

    Content type: Research

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  14. Liposomal bupivacaine demonstrated promise decreasing postoperative pain in total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Some randomized trials have shown non-superior results; however, confounding variabl...

    Authors: Scott Buzin, Arianna L. Gianakos, Deborah Li, Anthony Viola, Sherif Elkattawy, David M. Keller, Richard S. Yoon and Frank A. Liporace

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:6

    Content type: Research

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  15. Although of great value in the management of lateral clavicle fractures, substantial variation in their classification exists. We performed a retrospective study to address the inter- and intraobserver reliabi...

    Authors: Thomas Rauer, Matthias Boos, Valentin Neuhaus, Prasad Ellanti, Robert Alexander Kaufmann, Hans-Christoph Pape and Florin Allemann

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:4

    Content type: Research

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  16. Despite modern surgical techniques and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical site infection remains a burden for the patient and health system. It is a major cause of morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, ...

    Authors: Rahel Mezemir, Awole Seid, Teshome Gishu, Tangut Demas and Addisu Gize

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Hospital length of stay (HLOS) is a commonly used measure of hospital quality and is influenced by clinical and non-clinical factors. To reduce HLOS, it is key to identify factors placing patients at increased...

    Authors: Melissa Sorensen, Erica Sercy, Kristin Salottolo, Michael Waxman, Thomas A. West, Allen Tanner II and David Bar-Or

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2020 14:2

    Content type: Research

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  18. There is minimal literature discussing anterior lumbar spine surgery in ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). The main concern with the anterior approach to the lumbar spine is the potential for injury to great v...

    Authors: Benjamin C. Dorenkamp, Madisen K. Janssen and Michael E. Janssen

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:45

    Content type: Research

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  19. Currently, the management of ingrown toenail (onychocryptosis) ranges from conservative medical management to surgical treatment. Surgical management is typically performed as an outpatient procedure due to it...

    Authors: Aimé Gilbert Mbonda Noula, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Landry W. Tchuenkam, Desmond Aji Abang and René Essomba

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:44

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  20. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is not widely adopted for pelvic fracture management. Western Trauma Association recommends REBOA for hemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures...

    Authors: Stephanie Jarvis, Michael Kelly, Charles Mains, Chad Corrigan, Nimesh Patel, Matthew Carrick, Mark Lieser, Kaysie Banton and David Bar-Or

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:43

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common serious complications after surgery and associated with preventable morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. The use of surgical antimicr...

    Authors: Ali Mohammed Ahmed, Sara Nasr, Almegdad Mohamed Ahmed and Osama Elkhidir

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:42

    Content type: Research

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  22. Best practice “bundles” have been developed to lower the occurrence rate of surgical site infections (SSI’s). We developed artificial neural network (ANN) models to predict SSI occurrence based on prophylactic...

    Authors: Steven Walczak, Marbelly Davila and Vic Velanovich

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:41

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) contribute significantly to overall postoperative morbidity and mortality. In abdominal surgery, PPCs remain frequent. The study aimed to analyze the profile and ou...

    Authors: Antero Fernandes, Jéssica Rodrigues, Patrícia Lages, Sara Lança, Paula Mendes, Luís Antunes, Carla Salomé Santos, Clara Castro, Rafael S. Costa, Carlos Silva Lopes, Paulo Matos da Costa and Lúcio Lara Santos

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:40

    Content type: Research

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  24. Studies addressing the management of intramedullary infection are mainly retrospective and with a limited number of cases. Reaming can be performed using either conventional reaming or using the reamer/irrigat...

    Authors: Carlos Augusto Finelli, Fernando Baldy dos Reis, Helio Alvachian Fernandes, Adriana Dell’Aquila, Rogério Carvalho, Natalia Miki, Carlos Franciozi, Rene Abdalla and Mauro José Costa Salles

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Early drain removal after pancreatic resection is encouraged for individuals with low postoperative day 1 drain amylase levels (POD1 DA) to mitigate associated morbidity. Although various protocols for drain m...

    Authors: Heather Smith, Fady K. Balaa, Guillaume Martel, Jad Abou Khalil and Kimberly A. Bertens

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Hernia repair with mesh graft is one of the most common procedures in general surgery. Mesh graft repair is the treatment of choice for umbilical and periumbilical hernias to minimize recurrence. One of the ra...

    Authors: Abdullah AlShammari, Fatima Alyousef, Amal Alyousif, Zainab Alsulabi, Fatimah AlJishi, Isra Siraj, Hissah Alotaibi and Mohammad Aburahmah

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:37

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  27. Globally, medical errors are associated with an estimated $42 billion in costs to healthcare systems. A variety of errors in the delivery of healthcare have been identified by the World Health Organization and...

    Authors: Deepak C. Bajracharya, Kshitij Karki, Chhiring Yangjen Lama, Rajesh Dhoj Joshi, Shankar Man Rai, Sudhakar Jayaram, Amit Tomer, John Zervos, Mohammad Imran Khan, Arjun Sapkota, Madan Kumar Upadhyaya and Paul E. Kilgore

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:36

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Breast cancer, with an incidence of 32%, is the most frequent cancer among Egyptian women. The frequency of arm lymphedema after axillary surgery for breast cancer ranges from 7 to 77%. Axillary reverse mappin...

    Authors: Mohammed Faisal, Mohamed Gamal Sayed, Kerolos Antonious, Ahmmed Abo Bakr and Sherif Hussein Farag

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:35

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Surgical site infection is a common complication in women undergoing Caesarean section and the second most common cause of maternal mortality in obstetrics. In Ethiopia, prevalence and root causes of surgical ...

    Authors: Fentahun Adane, Abay Mulu, Girma Seyoum, Alemu Gebrie and Akilog Lake

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Adverse healthcare events are major public health problem with the heaviest burden in the low and middle-income countries. Patient safety awareness among healthcare professionals is known to impact this outcom...

    Authors: Arinze Duke George Nwosu, Fidelis Anayo Onyekwulu and Elias Chikee Aniwada

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:33

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. A substantial number of patients are at high-risk of intra- or post-operative complications or both. Most perioperative deaths are represented by patients who present insufficient physiological reserve to meet...

    Authors: Paolo Aseni, Stefano Orsenigo, Enrico Storti, Marco Pulici and Sergio Arlati

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:32

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. Open reduction and internal fixation remains the standard treatment for displaced unstable ankle fractures. Plate fixation represents the most frequently used instrumentation option in fibula fractures and fav...

    Authors: Guilherme Boni, Gustavo T. Sanchez, Gustavo Arliani, Boris A. Zelle, Robinson E. Pires and Fernando B. dos Reis

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Surgical implant material has changed over time, from metal to stainless steel to titanium. In recent decades a new material, carbon-fibre-reinforced polyether ether ketone, has been introduced. The aim of thi...

    Authors: Florin Allemann, Sascha Halvachizadeh, Thomas Rauer and Hans-Christoph Pape

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Small gauze is used in laparoscopy; therefore, retention of gauze can occur. We experienced a case of retention of a radiopaque thread that ruptured from a piece of gauze and moved into the peritoneum during a...

    Authors: Yoshiaki Oshima, Osamu Yamamoto, Akihiro Otsuki, Saori Tokunaga, Keiichiro Ueda and Yoshimi Inagaki

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:29

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  35. The Surgical Risk Preoperative Assessment System (SURPAS) is a parsimonious set of models providing accurate preoperative prediction of common adverse outcomes for individual patients. However, focus groups wi...

    Authors: William G. Henderson, Michael R. Bronsert, Karl E. Hammermeister, Anne Lambert-Kerzner and Robert A. Meguid

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Morbidity & Mortality (M&M) meetings are a critical component of clinical governance. They have the potential to improve patient outcomes, quality of care, attitudes towards patient safety and they contribute ...

    Authors: Daniel M. Sinitsky, Siri B. Gowda, Khaled Dawas and Bimbi S. Fernando

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Healthcare-associated illnesses, of which surgical site infection is the most common are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and root causes o...

    Authors: Kidanie Fisha, Muluken Azage, Getasew Mulat and Koku Sisay Tamirat

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an effective adjunct in hemodynamic unstable patients with uncontrolled and non-compressible torso hemorrhage promoting temporary stability ...

    Authors: Orkun Özkurtul, Holger Staab, Georg Osterhoff, Benjamin Ondruschka, Andreas Höch, Christoph Josten and Johannes Karl Maria Fakler

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:25

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  39. Respect for patient autonomy and the requirement of informed consent is an essential basic patient right. It is constituted through international conventions and implemented in health law in Norway and most ot...

    Authors: Jorgen Dahlberg, Vegard Dahl, Reidun Forde and Reidar Pedersen

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Patients with hemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures have high mortality due to delayed hemorrhage control. We hypothesized that the availability of interventional radiology (IR) for angioembolization may v...

    Authors: Stephanie Jarvis, Alessandro Orlando, Benoit Blondeau, Kaysie Banton, Cassandra Reynolds, Gina M. Berg, Nimesh Patel, Michael Kelly, Matthew Carrick and David Bar-Or

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:23

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  41. Daily routine laboratory testing is unnecessary in most admitted patients. The opportunity to reduce daily laboratory testing in orthopaedic trauma patients has not been previously investigated.

    Authors: Raj. M. Amin, Alexander E. Loeb, Erik A. Hasenboehler, Adam S. Levin, Greg M. Osgood, Robert S. Sterling, Philip F. Stahel and Babar Shafiq

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:22

    Content type: Research

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  42. Shoulder arthroscopy is a safe and effective procedure with a low complication rate. Although rare, there are potentially life-threatening risks such as fluid extravasation causing airway compromise.

    Authors: Brandon R. Vier, Kyle W. Mombell, Erin L. Gagliano, Nicole M. King and Lucas S. McDonald

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:21

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. The most common complications after total mastectomy with axillary lymph node treatment are prolonged drainage and seroma formation. The aim of this study was to find factors correlated with prolonged fluid di...

    Authors: Hiroshi Isozaki, Yasuhisa Yamamoto, Shigeki Murakami, Sasau Matsumoto and Takehiro Takama

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Closed reduction with long leg casting is a widely practiced method of acute management of lower extremity fractures but may be cumbersome and time consuming. To our knowledge, only one method of single practi...

    Authors: Robert L. Parisien and Kenneth J. McAlpine

    Citation: Patient Safety in Surgery 2019 13:19

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

Editors-in-Chief
Prof Philip F Stahel, The Medical Center of Aurora, USA
Prof Pierre-Alain Clavien, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland

Managing Editor
Prof Sebastian Weckbach, University Hospital Ulm, Germany
Dr Navid Ziran, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Arizona, USA

Senior Editor Emeritus
Prof George Youngson, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Scotland

Associate Editors
Dr Darryl Auston, North Suburban Medical Center, Colorado, USA
Prof Walter Biffl, Scripps Memorial Hospital, USA
Prof Markus W Buechler, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany
Prof Christoph E Heyde, University Hospital Leipzig, Germany
Dr Michael Janssen, Center for Spinal Disorders, USA
Prof James Kellam, Carolinas Medical Center, USA
Dr Fernando Kim, Denver Health Medical Center, USA 
Prof Martin A Makary, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA 
Dr Claudia Medina, IPS Universitaria Clinica Leon XIII, Colombia
Prof Philip S Mehler, Eating Recovery Center, USA
Prof Ernest E Moore, Denver Health Medical Center, USA
Prof Hans-Christoph Pape, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
Prof Rodrigo Pesántez, Universidad de los Andes Bogotá, Colombia
Dr. Carlos Rodriguez, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, USA
Dr Steven Schelkun,  AO North America, USA
Prof Andrew H Schmidt, Minnesota university, USA
Dr Jeffrey Smith, Orthopaedic Trauma & Fracture Specialist Medical Corp, USA
Prof Wade R Smith, Swedish Medical Center, USA
Prof Adam Starr, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, USA
Prof Charles Vincent, University of Oxford, UK
Dr Boris A. Zelle, University of Texas Health, USA
Prof Bruce Ziran, Hughston Clinic at Gwinnett Medical Center, USA

Statistical Advisors
Dr Stefan Sauerland, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG), Germany
Dr Allison E Williams, Bay Pines VA Health Care System, USA

Editorial Board
Prof Fernando Baldy dos Reis, UNIFESP-Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
Prof Jeffrey Barkun, McGill University Health Center, Canada
Dr Nathan C Butler, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, USA
Dr Ted Clarke, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies (COPIC), USA
Prof Nicolas Demartines, University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Switzerland
Dr Johannes Fakler, University of Leipzig, Germany
Prof Joan Figueras, University Hospital Girona, Spain
Prof Beat Gloor, University of Bern, Switzerland
Dr Andrew Grose, Westchester Medical Center, USA 
Prof Dieter Hahnloser, University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Switzerland
Prof Jiandong Hao, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, China
Prof Kirk Hogan, University of Wisconsin, USA
Prof Markus Huber-Lang, University of Ulm, Germany
Dr Kyros Ipaktchi, Denver Health Medical Center, USA
Dr Thilo John, DRK Hospital Berlin-Westend, Germany 
Dr Jeffrey L Johnson, Henry Ford Hospital, USA
Prof Jeffry Kashuk, Tel Aviv University-Sackler School of Medicine, Israel
Prof Christian K Lackner, LMU University, Germany
Dr Geeta Lal, University of Iowa, USA
Dr Alan Lembitz, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies (COPIC), USA
Prof Matthias Majetschak, Loyola University, USA
Dr Lucas McCormack, Hospital Aleman, Argentina
Dr Timothy Moore, MetroHealth Medical Center, USA
Dr John Mukhopadhaya, Mukhopadhaya Orthopaedic Clinic, India
Prof Giuseppe Nigri, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Dr Lena Nilsson, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden
Dr Robert Padbury, Flinders Medical Centre, Australia
Dr Fredric Pieracci, Denver Health Medical Center, USA
Prof John V Reynolds, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland 
Prof Taylor S Riall, University of Arizona, USA
Dr Andrew Robson, University of Edinburgh, UK
Prof Steven M. Strasberg, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
Dr Todd Swenning, Desert Regional Medical Center, USA
Dr Jeffrey Varnell, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies (COPIC), USA
Dr Ryan Will, Olympia Orthopaedic Association, USA
Dr Gerald Zarlengo, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies, USA

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