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Table 2 Individual and environmental characteristics

From: Exploring unnecessary invasive procedures in the United States: a retrospective mixed-methods analysis of cases from 2008-2016

Physician Description  Significant personal problems 11.4%
 Age > 49 years old 48.1%  Poor professional skills 12.7%
 Gender: Male 96.2%  Claimed cases as uniquely difficult 12.7%
 Born outside the US 27.8% Relationship to Industrya  
 Trained outside the US 40.5%  Gifts 3.8%
 Specialty    Consulting/Authorship/Speaking 8.9%
  Internal/General 8.9%  Grants for education or research 3.8%
  OB/GYN 3.8%  Ownership interest 8.9%
  Psychiatry/Neurology 1.3%  Physician owned distributorship 2.5%
  Pediatrics/Family 5.1%  Other relationship to industry 11.4%
  Anesthesiology 6.3% Workplace  
  Other surgery/emergency/ENT 7.6%  Non-Academic, Private Practice 92.4%
  Urology 3.8% Physician practice size  
  Cardiology/Interventional 26.6%  Solo 17.7%
  Neurosurgery 10.1%  Small (2–3 physicians) 12.7%
  Orthopedics/Surgery 10.1%  Large (≥ 4 physicians) 55.7%
  Oncology 6.3%  Other/Unknown 13.9%
  Other 10.1% Physician ownership  
 Board certified 70.9%  Solo 29.1%
 Antisocial personality traits 48.1%  Joint 13.9%
 Engaged in unrelated illegal actions 21.5%  Employee 45.6%
 Evidence of severe mental illness 1.3%  Other/Unknown Motive 11.4%
 Substance addiction 2.5% Accomplice involved 57.0%
  1. aRelationships to industry means that reports on the unnecessary procedures mentioned such relationships. The cases investigated occurred before the Physician Payments Sunshine Act was effective, so no publicly available database of relationships existed. Total percent with any kind of relationship was 24.1%