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Table 3 Response to unnecessary procedures: whistleblowers, investigation, fraud charges, consequences

From: Exploring unnecessary invasive procedures in the United States: a retrospective mixed-methods analysis of cases from 2008-2016

Whistleblowers Specific Fraud Charges
Missed opportunity to blow whistle 35.4% False claims 34.2%
Whistleblower ignored 25.3% Anti-Kickback 13.9%
Whistleblower type   Stark law 2.5%
Patient 16.5% Exclusion statute 5.1%
Peer/Physician colleague 19.0% Civil monetary penalties law 12.7%
Nurse or other staff 10.1% Other federal fraud or abuse law 15.2%
Other 36.7% Title 18 federal/criminal charges 35.4%
None/Unknown 17.7% State criminal charges 15.2%
Investigation Consequencesa
Board investigation 72.2% Loss of licensure 55.7%
Criminal investigation 64.6% Financial penalties 70.9%
Civil proceedings 57.0% Prison/Probation or service 31.6%
Others were found guilty 34.2% Mandated treatment or education 20.3%
   Discontinued practicing medicine 58.2%
   Loss of job/professional options 73.4%
   Increased oversight/monitoring 30.4%
  1. aIn 2 cases the physician died prior to sentencing