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Table 1 Differences in clinical and administrative factors in patients with and without discharge delays

From: The effect of discharge destination and primary insurance provider on hospital discharge delays among patients with traumatic brain injury: a multicenter study of 1,543 patients

 Overall study populationDelayedNot DelayedP
n = 1543n = 210 (13.6%)n = 1333 (86.4%)
Delay Details
 Days from admission to delay start, median (IQR), range6 (3–12) 
 Delay days, median (IQR)3 (2–6) 
Reason for delay
 Insurance109 (51.9%) 
 Accepting bed85 (40.5%) 
 Patient72 (34.3%) 
 Provider12 (5.7%) 
 Procedure9 (4.3%) 
 Test9 (4.3%) 
HLOS days, median (IQR)5 (3–9)10 (7–19)4 (2–7)< 0.01
ICU LOS days, median (IQR)2 (1–5)5 (3–10)2 (1–4)< 0.01
Patient Demographics
 Age, median (IQR)61 (40–78)63 (46–79)61 (39–77)0.27
Sex   0.61
 Male923 (59.8%)129 (61.4%)794 (59.6%) 
 Female620 (40.2%)81 (38.6%)539 (40.4%) 
Race   0.64
 White1187 (78.9%)164 (81.6%)1023 (78.5%) 
 Black151 (10.0%)20 (10.0%)131 (10.1%) 
 Hispanic23 (1.5%)2 (1.0%)21 (1.6%) 
 Other143 (9.5%)15 (7.5%)128 (9.8%) 
Clinical Characteristics
 ISS, median (IQR)14 (10–21)17 (11–25)14 (10–20)< 0.01
 GCS, median (IQR)15 (14–15)14 (8–15)15 (14–15)< 0.01
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular692 (44.9%)98 (46.7%)594 (44.6%)0.57
 Smoker309 (20.0%)38 (18.1%)271 (20.3%)0.45
 Substance abuse263 (17.0%)41 (19.5%)222 (16.7%)0.30
 Diabetes236 (15.3%)34 (16.2%)202 (15.2%)0.70
 Bleeding disorder166 (10.8%)22 (10.5%)144 (10.8%)0.89
 Dementia137 (8.9%)23 (11.0%)114 (8.6%)0.26
 Psychiatric121 (7.8%)33 (15.7%)88 (6.6%)< 0.01
 Respiratory108 (7.0%)18 (8.6%)90 (6.8%)0.34
 Previous stroke103 (6.7%)17 (8.1%)86 (6.5%)0.38
 Functionally dependent health status101 (6.6%)12 (5.7%)89 (6.7%)0.60
 Advanced directive51 (3.3%)9 (4.3%)42 (3.2%)0.39
 Cirrhosis22 (1.4%)7 (3.3%)15 (1.1%)0.02
Mechanism of injury   0.01
 Fall924 (59.9%)117 (55.7%)807 (60.5%) 
 Motor vehicle collision306 (19.8%)59 (28.1%)247 (18.5%) 
 Assault87 (5.6%)9 (4.3%)78 (5.9%) 
 Other226 (14.7%)25 (11.9%)201 (15.1%) 
Neurosurgical intervention186 (12.1%)40 (19.1%)146 (11.0%)< 0.01
 Neurosurgical intervention prior to delay35 (16.7%)
Administrative
Discharge disposition   < 0.01
 Home/home health826 (53.5%)43 (20.5%)783 (58.7%) 
 Rehabilitation facility284 (18.4%)78 (37.1%)206 (15.5%) 
 Skilled nursing facility157 (10.2%)44 (21.0%)113 (8.5%) 
 Hospice78 (5.1%)5 (2.4%)73 (5.5%) 
 Intermediate care facility68 (4.4%)18 (8.6%)50 (3.8%) 
 Long-term acute care/nursing home51 (3.3%)14 (6.7%)37 (2.8%) 
 Other46 (3.0%)4 (1.9%)44 (3.3%) 
 Death31 (2.0%)4 (1.9%)27 (2.0%) 
Primary insurance   0.32
 Medicare539 (35.0%)62 (29.7%)477 (35.9%) 
 Commercial/private534 (34.7%)81 (38.8%)453 (34.1%) 
 Uninsured/self-pay204 (13.3%)28 (13.4%)176 (13.2%) 
 Medicaid148 (9.6%)25 (12.0%)123 (9.3%) 
 Other83 (5.4%)11 (5.3%)72 (5.4%) 
 Military31 (2.0%)2 (1.0%)29 (2.2%) 
Secondary insurance utilized207 (13.4%)40 (19.1%)167 (12.5%)< 0.01
Secondary insurance   0.43
 Medicare47 (22.7%)9 (22.5%)38 (22.8%) 
 Commercial/private70 (33.8%)9 (22.5%)61 (36.5%) 
 Self-pay25 (12.1%)5 (12.5%)20 (12.0%) 
 Medicaid33 (15.9%)10 (25.0%)23 (13.8%) 
 Other19 (9.2%)4 (10.0%)15 (9.0%) 
 Military13 (6.3%)3 (7.5%)10 (6.0%) 
  1. IQR interquartile range; HLOS hospital length of stay; LOS length of stay; ICU intensive care unit; ISS Injury Severity Score; GCS Glasgow Coma Scale. Bold indicates statistical significance at a threshold of P < 0.05. Unless otherwise indicated, results are shown as n (%)