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Table 1 Minimum expected safe anesthesia requirements to be fulfilled in each headinga

From: The current state of anesthesia safety in a third world country: a cross-sectional survey among anesthesia providers in Ethiopia

Professional aspect Facilities and equipments Medications and intravenous fluids Patient monitoring Conduct of anesthesia
Bachelor of science (BSc) anesthesia professional,
Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and Continuous Medical Education
(CMD)
Adequate lighting, tilting operating table, supply of oxygen, Oropharyngeal airways, different size facemasks, Laryngoscope for adult and pediatrics, Endotracheal tubes for adult and pediatric, intubation aids, suction device with catheter, adult and pediatric self-inflating bags, equipment for intravenous (IV) infusions and injection, equipment for spinal anesthesia, sterile gloves, defibrillator, Stethoscope, Pulse oximetry adult and pediatric, Capnography, non-invasive blood pressure monitor for adult and pediatric, and Electrocardiogram Ketamine, diazepam or midazolam,
morphine, local anesthetic (lidocaine or bupivacaine) dextrose, normal saline or ringer’s lactate, epinephrine (adrenaline), atropine, acetaminophen, NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and magnesium
Clinical observation, using audible signals and alarms, continuous use of pulse oximetry, intermittent non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (NIBP), and carbon dioxide detector for patients undergoing intubation Preoperative anesthesia assessment and consent, transfer of care and delegation of care, post anesthesia care unit (PACU), record keeping, WHO safe surgery checklist application, continuous presence of anesthesia provider, and pain management
  1. aDeveloped from WHO-WFSA International Standard for safe practice of anesthesia [11], Ethiopian Primary Hospital Requirements [15], Ethiopian General Hospital Requirements [16], and Ethiopian Comprehensive Specialized Hospital requirements [17]