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Case report

Preparing your manuscript

The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section.

Please note that your manuscript must include a 'Declarations' section including all of the subheadings (please see below for more information).

Title page 

The title page should:

  •  present a title that includes, if appropriate, the study design e.g.:
    • "A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial", "X is a risk factor for Y: a case control study", "What is the impact of factor X on subject Y: A systematic review, A case report etc."
    • or, for non-clinical or non-research studies: a description of what the article reports
  • list the full names and institutional addresses for all authors​​​​​​​
    • if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below
  •  indicate the corresponding author


The Abstract should not exceed 350 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

  • Background: why the case should be reported and its novelty
  • Case presentation: a brief description of the patient’s clinical and demographic details, the diagnosis, any interventions and the outcomes
  • Conclusions: a brief summary of the clinical impact or potential implications of the case report


Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.


The Background section should explain the background to the case report or study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature.

Case presentation

This section should include a description of the patient’s relevant demographic details, medical history, symptoms and signs, treatment or intervention, outcomes and any other significant details.

Discussion and Conclusions

This should discuss the relevant existing literature and should state clearly the main conclusions, including an explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.

List of abbreviations

If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.


All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading 'Declarations':

  • Ethics approval and consent to participate
  • Consent for publication
  • Availability of data and materials
  • Competing interests
  • Funding
  • Authors' contributions
  • Acknowledgements
  • Authors' information (optional)

Please see below for details on the information to be included in these sections.

If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write 'Not applicable' for that section. 

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Manuscripts reporting studies involving human participants, human data or human tissue must:

  • include a statement on ethics approval and consent (even where the need for approval was waived)
  • include the name of the ethics committee that approved the study and the committee’s reference number if appropriate

Studies involving animals must include a statement on ethics approval and for experimental studies involving client-owned animals, authors must also include a statement on informed consent from the client or owner.

See our editorial policies for more information.

If your manuscript does not report on or involve the use of any animal or human data or tissue, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Consent for publication

If your manuscript contains any individual person’s data in any form (including any individual details, images or videos), consent for publication must be obtained from that person, or in the case of children, their parent or legal guardian. All presentations of case reports must have consent for publication.

You can use your institutional consent form or our consent form if you prefer. You should not send the form to us on submission, but we may request to see a copy at any stage (including after publication).

See our editorial policies for more information on consent for publication.

If your manuscript does not contain data from any individual person, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Availability of data and materials

All manuscripts must include an ‘Availability of data and materials’ statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. By data we mean the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. We recognise it is not always possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, and in such instances data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access.

Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

  • The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
  • The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
  • The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
  • The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].
  • Not applicable. If your manuscript does not contain any data, please state 'Not applicable' in this section.

More examples of template data availability statements, which include examples of openly available and restricted access datasets, are available here.

BioMed Central also requires that authors cite any publicly available data on which the conclusions of the paper rely in the manuscript. Data citations should include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI) and should ideally be included in the reference list. Citations of datasets, when they appear in the reference list, should include the minimum information recommended by DataCite and follow journal style. Dataset identifiers including DOIs should be expressed as full URLs. For example:

Hao Z, AghaKouchak A, Nakhjiri N, Farahmand A. Global integrated drought monitoring and prediction system (GIDMaPS) data sets. figshare. 2014.

With the corresponding text in the Availability of data and materials statement:

The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS].[Reference number] 

If you wish to co-submit a data note describing your data to be published in BMC Research Notes, you can do so by visiting our submission portal. Data notes support open data and help authors to comply with funder policies on data sharing. Co-published data notes will be linked to the research article the data support (example).

For more information please email our Research Data Team.

Competing interests

All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in this section.

See our editorial policies for a full explanation of competing interests. If you are unsure whether you or any of your co-authors have a competing interest please contact the editorial office.

Please use the authors initials to refer to each authors' competing interests in this section.

If you do not have any competing interests, please state "The authors declare that they have no competing interests" in this section.


All sources of funding for the research reported should be declared. The role of the funding body in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript should be declared.

Authors' contributions

The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section. Guidance and criteria for authorship can be found in our editorial policies.

Please use initials to refer to each author's contribution in this section, for example: "FC analyzed and interpreted the patient data regarding the hematological disease and the transplant. RH performed the histological examination of the kidney, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript."


Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.

Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.

See our editorial policies for a full explanation of acknowledgements and authorship criteria.

If you do not have anyone to acknowledge, please write "Not applicable" in this section.

Group authorship (for manuscripts involving a collaboration group): if you would like the names of the individual members of a collaboration Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please ensure that the title of the collaboration Group is included on the title page and in the submission system and also include collaborating author names as the last paragraph of the “Acknowledgements” section. Please add authors in the format First Name, Middle initial(s) (optional), Last Name. You can add institution or country information for each author if you wish, but this should be consistent across all authors.

Please note that individual names may not be present in the PubMed record at the time a published article is initially included in PubMed as it takes PubMed additional time to code this information.

Authors' information

This section is optional.

You may choose to use this section to include any relevant information about the author(s) that may aid the reader's interpretation of the article, and understand the standpoint of the author(s). This may include details about the authors' qualifications, current positions they hold at institutions or societies, or any other relevant background information. Please refer to authors using their initials. Note this section should not be used to describe any competing interests.


Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols.

Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.


Examples of the Vancouver reference style are shown below.

See our editorial policies for author guidance on good citation practice

Web links and URLs: All web links and URLs, including links to the authors' own websites, should be given a reference number and included in the reference list rather than within the text of the manuscript. They should be provided in full, including both the title of the site and the URL, as well as the date the site was accessed, in the following format: The Mouse Tumor Biology Database. Accessed 20 May 2013. If an author or group of authors can clearly be associated with a web link, such as for weblogs, then they should be included in the reference.

Example reference style:

Article within a journal

Smith JJ. The world of science. Am J Sci. 1999;36:234-5.

Article within a journal (no page numbers)

Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Jakobsen MU, Egeberg R, Tjønneland A, et al. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Medicine. 2013;11:63.

Article within a journal by DOI

Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Dig J Mol Med. 2000; doi:10.1007/s801090000086.

Article within a journal supplement

Frumin AM, Nussbaum J, Esposito M. Functional asplenia: demonstration of splenic activity by bone marrow scan. Blood 1979;59 Suppl 1:26-32.

Book chapter, or an article within a book

Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. In: Bourne GH, Danielli JF, Jeon KW, editors. International review of cytology. London: Academic; 1980. p. 251-306.

OnlineFirst chapter in a series (without a volume designation but with a DOI)

Saito Y, Hyuga H. Rate equation approaches to amplification of enantiomeric excess and chiral symmetry breaking. Top Curr Chem. 2007. doi:10.1007/128_2006_108.

Complete book, authored

Blenkinsopp A, Paxton P. Symptoms in the pharmacy: a guide to the management of common illness. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998.

Online document

Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999. of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999.

Online database

Healthwise Knowledgebase. US Pharmacopeia, Rockville. 1998. Accessed 21 Sept 1998.

Supplementary material/private homepage

Doe J. Title of supplementary material. 2000. Accessed 22 Feb 2000.

University site

Doe, J: Title of preprint. (1999). Accessed 25 Dec 1999.

FTP site

Doe, J: Trivial HTTP, RFC2169. (1999). Accessed 12 Nov 1999.

Organization site

ISSN International Centre: The ISSN register. (2006). Accessed 20 Feb 2007.

Dataset with persistent identifier

Zheng L-Y, Guo X-S, He B, Sun L-J, Peng Y, Dong S-S, et al. Genome data from sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). GigaScience Database. 2011.

Figures, tables and additional files

See General formatting guidelines for information on how to format figures, tables and additional files.

Prof Philip F Stahel, The Medical Center of Aurora, USA
Prof Pierre-Alain Clavien, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland

Managing Editor
Prof Sebastian Weckbach, University Hospital Ulm, Germany
Dr Navid Ziran, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Arizona, USA

Senior Editor Emeritus
Prof George Youngson, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Scotland

Associate Editors
Dr Darryl Auston, North Suburban Medical Center, Colorado, USA
Prof Walter Biffl, Scripps Memorial Hospital, USA
Prof Markus W Buechler, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany
Prof Christoph E Heyde, University Hospital Leipzig, Germany
Dr Michael Janssen, Center for Spinal Disorders, USA
Prof James Kellam, Carolinas Medical Center, USA
Dr Fernando Kim, Denver Health Medical Center, USA 
Prof Martin A Makary, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA 
Dr Claudia Medina, IPS Universitaria Clinica Leon XIII, Colombia
Prof Philip S Mehler, Eating Recovery Center, USA
Prof Ernest E Moore, Denver Health Medical Center, USA
Prof Hans-Christoph Pape, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
Prof Rodrigo Pesántez, Universidad de los Andes Bogotá, Colombia
Dr. Carlos Rodriguez, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, USA
Dr Steven Schelkun,  AO North America, USA
Prof Andrew H Schmidt, Minnesota university, USA
Dr Jeffrey Smith, Orthopaedic Trauma & Fracture Specialist Medical Corp, USA
Prof Wade R Smith, Swedish Medical Center, USA
Prof Adam Starr, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, USA
Prof Charles Vincent, University of Oxford, UK
Dr Boris A. Zelle, University of Texas Health, USA
Prof Bruce Ziran, Hughston Clinic at Gwinnett Medical Center, USA

Statistical Advisors
Dr Stefan Sauerland, Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG), Germany
Dr Allison E Williams, Bay Pines VA Health Care System, USA

Editorial Board
Prof Fernando Baldy dos Reis, UNIFESP-Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil
Prof Jeffrey Barkun, McGill University Health Center, Canada
Dr Nathan C Butler, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, USA
Dr Ted Clarke, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies (COPIC), USA
Prof Nicolas Demartines, University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Switzerland
Dr Johannes Fakler, University of Leipzig, Germany
Prof Joan Figueras, University Hospital Girona, Spain
Prof Beat Gloor, University of Bern, Switzerland
Dr Andrew Grose, Westchester Medical Center, USA 
Prof Dieter Hahnloser, University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Switzerland
Prof Jiandong Hao, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, China
Prof Kirk Hogan, University of Wisconsin, USA
Prof Markus Huber-Lang, University of Ulm, Germany
Dr Kyros Ipaktchi, Denver Health Medical Center, USA
Dr Thilo John, DRK Hospital Berlin-Westend, Germany 
Dr Jeffrey L Johnson, Henry Ford Hospital, USA
Prof Jeffry Kashuk, Tel Aviv University-Sackler School of Medicine, Israel
Prof Christian K Lackner, LMU University, Germany
Dr Geeta Lal, University of Iowa, USA
Dr Alan Lembitz, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies (COPIC), USA
Prof Matthias Majetschak, Loyola University, USA
Dr Lucas McCormack, Hospital Aleman, Argentina
Dr Timothy Moore, MetroHealth Medical Center, USA
Dr John Mukhopadhaya, Mukhopadhaya Orthopaedic Clinic, India
Prof Giuseppe Nigri, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Dr Lena Nilsson, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden
Dr Robert Padbury, Flinders Medical Centre, Australia
Dr Fredric Pieracci, Denver Health Medical Center, USA
Prof John V Reynolds, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland 
Prof Taylor S Riall, University of Arizona, USA
Dr Andrew Robson, University of Edinburgh, UK
Prof Steven M. Strasberg, Washington University School of Medicine, USA
Dr Todd Swenning, Desert Regional Medical Center, USA
Dr Jeffrey Varnell, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies (COPIC), USA
Dr Ryan Will, Olympia Orthopaedic Association, USA
Dr Gerald Zarlengo, Colorado Physician Insurance Companies, USA